This is a Led can connect to 220Vac to 240 Vac. This is solution for simple to application Led for Home. This Led is very simple to use and install. but you must be careful because it use high voltage. its your own risk. To improve protection against surge, two pairs of identical resistors connected in parallel are symmetrically added to the LED so that total equivalent resistance, the sum of R1 and R2, is equal to the selected value in p.7.
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This worked, but if I recall correctly the resistance response wasn’t linear but the EZIO ADC, so this meant that I lost resolution and couldn’t reliably tell the difference between a lightly closed hand and a fist.
In the end, I made my own flex sensors. In a nutshell, each flex sensor was an IR LED, an IR sensitive diode (I think), clear aquarium tubing, scrap wires (black), and heatshrink.
Basically, this was a ghetto fibre optic cable (dategloves back then had fibreoptic sensors that detected finger flex). This worked surprisingly well.
This circuit build using Op Amp 741, Though designs vary between products and manufacturers, all op-amps have basically the same internal structure, which consists of three stages:
- Differential amplifier – provides low noise amplification, high input impedance, usually a differential output.
- Voltage amplifier – provides high voltage gain, a single-pole frequency roll-off, usually single-ended output.
- Output amplifier – provides high current driving capability, low output impedance, current limiting and short circuit protection circuitry.
in this circuits Op-Amp 741 working as Voltage amplifier
Relay close when no light fall on LDR1, if you want reversed action please exchange LDR1 and R1 and sensitivity can be adjusted with P1, D1 prevents sparking relay coil when it open.